Store: The Lens: A Practical Guide for the Creative Photographer

by Nk Guy


Read now


ISBN: 9781933952970

Published: Dec 01

Publisher: Rocky Nook


Cover Page 1 >
Title Page 3 >
Copyright Page 4 >
Dedication 6 >
Table of Contents 7 >
Introduction 14 >
Why interchangeable lenses? 14 >
What can interchangeable lenses do for me? 16 >
What’s covered in this book? 20 >
What’s not covered in this book 24 >
1 A brief history of optics 25 >
1.1 The science of light 25 >
1.2 The path to the lens 25 >
1.3 Geometrical optics 36 >
1.4 Waves and particles 38 >
2 Bending light 39 >
2.1 Putting glass to work 39 >
2.2 Refraction 40 >
2.3 What is a lens? 42 >
2.4 Lens elements 44 >
2.5 Field of view 46 >
2.6 Focal length 50 >
2.7 But what is focal length, really? 52 >
2.8 Prime or zoom: adjustable focal lengths 54 >
2.9 The 35mm focal length equivalent 58 >
2.10 Digital versus film: the cropping factor 59 >
2.11 APS-C 65 >
2.12 Medium format 66 >
2.13 Focal length examples 68 >
2.14 Image circles 68 >
2.15 All about apertures 70 >
2.16 F-stops 73 >
2.17 Maximum apertures 76 >
2.18 Fast and slow lenses 79 >
2.19 Diaphragms 83 >
2.20 Adjusting the aperture 84 >
2.21 Wide-open metering 85 >
2.22 Depth of field 86 >
3 Lens mechanisms 93 >
3.1 What’s in a lens? 93 >
3.2 A lens that fits: lens mounts 94 >
3.3 Popular lens mounts 96 >
3.4 Motors and mechanisms 97 >
3.5 Ultrasonic focus motors 103 >
3.6 Motion blur 105 >
3.7 The handheld rule 107 >
3.8 Stabilizers: a lens not shaken 107 >
3.9 The user interface 115 >
3.10 To infinity—and beyond! 124 >
3.11 Lens electronics 124 >
3.12 What’s in a name? 127 >
3.13 Alphabet soup 128 >
3.14 Decoding a lens name 130 >
3.15 Serial numbers 132 >
3.16 Build quality 133 >
3.17 Lens barrel construction 133 >
3.18 Lens marketing categories 137 >
3.19 Notable marketing categories 140 >
3.20 Colored rings 145 >
3.21 Kit lenses 147 >
3.22 White lenses 149 >
3.23 Safety 150 >
3.24 Cold weather 152 >
4 Choosing the right lens for a project 153 >
4.1 Choosing a lens 153 >
4.2 Portraits 154 >
4.3 Landscapes 160 >
4.4 Kids 165 >
4.5 Closeup or macro photography 168 >
4.6 Sports 175 >
4.7 Traveling light 178 >
4.8 The reporter’s triumvirate 181 >
4.9 Low-light and night photography 183 >
4.10 Wildlife photography 188 >
5 Choosing a lens by focal length 191 >
5.1 Wide angle 191 >
5.2 Extreme wide angles 193 >
5.3 Fisheyes 196 >
5.4 Normal or the Nifty Fifty 205 >
5.5 Telephoto 209 >
5.6 Super telephoto 212 >
5.7 Megazooms 216 >
5.8 A matter of perspective 218 >
5.9 Perspective in portraits 219 >
5.10 Falling backwards: another take on perspective 226 >
5.11 Compressed perspective 231 >
6 Accessorize! 235 >
6.1 Filters 235 >
6.2 Lens hoods 261 >
6.3 Teleconverters and extenders 266 >
6.4 Supplementary lens focal length adapters 269 >
6.5 Macro accessories 271 >
6.6 Caps 278 >
6.7 Bags 279 >
6.8 Tripod mounts 280 >
7 Buying lenses 281 >
7.1 Camera brand or third party? 282 >
7.2 Where to buy? 285 >
7.3 The dark side of camera retailing 292 >
7.4 Warranties 294 >
7.5 The gray market 295 >
7.6 Going used? 296 >
7.7 Rental options 297 >
8 Advanced topics 299 >
8.1 Learning more about optics 300 >
8.2 What is focal length? 300 >
8.3 Lens element types 306 >
8.4 Optical properties 308 >
8.5 Manufacturing 312 >
8.6 Seeking the perfect lens 313 >
8.7 Optical flaws 314 >
8.8 Chromatic aberration: color fringing 315 >
8.9 Spherical aberration 321 >
8.10 Aspheric lens elements 322 >
8.11 Intentional spherical aberration 324 >
8.12 Distortion 327 >
8.13 Other aberrations 331 >
8.14 Sharpness 335 >
8.15 Lens flare 335 >
8.16 Antireflective lens coatings 341 >
8.17 Multicoatings 344 >
8.18 Bokeh 347 >
8.19 Vignetting 351 >
8.20 Close focus distance 354 >
8.21 The hyperfocal distance 354 >
8.22 The diffraction limit 358 >
8.23 Diffractive optic lenses 358 >
8.24 Tilt and shift 360 >
8.25 Lenses for video 370 >
8.26 Mirror lenses 376 >
8.27 “Digital” lenses 380 >
8.28 Dust 381 >
8.29 Scratches 383 >
8.30 Cleaning lenses 384 >
8.31 Keeping out the weather 386 >
8.32 Fungus 388 >
8.33 Repairs 389 >
8.34 Infrared photography 390 >
8.35 The mystery of MTF charts 394 >
8.36 A measurable obsession 397 >
8.37 Sample variation 398 >
8.38 Micro focus adjustment 399 >
8.39 Testing for focus errors 400 >
9 Creative options: beyond the standard lens 402 >
9.1 Manual-focus lenses 403 >
9.2 Adapting lenses to other camera systems 404 >
9.3 Focusing manually 420 >
9.4 Modern manual-focus lenses 426 >
9.5 Toy cameras and lo-fi photography 427 >
9.6 Diana lenses 430 >
9.7 A flexible approach: the Lensbaby 433 >
9.8 Creative bokeh 437 >
9.9 Pinhole cameras 440 >
9.10 Detaching the lens 441 >
9.11 Fake anamorphic effects 441 >
9.12 Homemade lenses 442 >
Conclusion 445 >
Appendix A: Lens mount systems 446 >
Arri PL 446 >
C-mount and CS-mount 447 >
Canon FL and Canon FD 448 >
Canon EF 448 >
Canon EF-S 450 >
Contax G 450 >
Four Thirds 451 >
Fujifilm X 452 >
Leica screw mount/L39/LTM 453 >
L39 enlarger lenses 454 >
M39 455 >
Leica M 455 >
Leica R 456 >
M42/universal screw mount 456 >
Micro Four Thirds 457 >
Minolta SR, MC, MD 458 >
Minolta AF 459 >
Minolta V or Vectis 459 >
Nikon F 459 >
Nikon 1/CX 461 >
Nikon DX 461 >
Nikon FX 462 >
Nikon IX 462 >
Olympus OM 462 >
Panavision PV 463 >
Pentax K (PK) 463 >
Pentax KAF 464 >
Pentax Q 464 >
Samsung NX 465 >
Sigma SA 465 >
Sony A-mount 466 >
Sony E-mount 467 >
T-mount 467 >
Tamron Adaptall 468 >
Appendix B: Manufacturer-specific lens terms 469 >
Canon 469 >
Fujifilm/Fujinon 470 >
Leica 470 >
Nikon/Nikkor 470 >
Olympus Zuiko/MZuiko 471 >
Pentax 471 >
Sigma 471 >
Sony, Minolta 472 >
Tamron 472 >
Tokina 473 >
Zeiss 473 >
Common across more than one maker 473 >
Appendix C: Lens mount table 474 >
Appendix D: Chapter Opening Images 475 >
Appendix E: A simple focus test 481 >
Acknowledgements 483 >
Technical reviewers: 483 >
Models: 483 >
Special thanks to: 483 >
Glossary 488 >
Index 510 >
Footnotes 545 >
Chapter 2 545 >
Chapter 5 545 >
Chapter 9 545 >